UPSC Syllabus: IAS Mains Chemistry Optional Syllabus

UPSC Mains Chemistry Syllabus Chemistry Optional Paper – I 1. Atomic Structure: Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, Schrodinger wave equation (time independent); Interpretation of wave function, particle in one-dimensional box, quantum numbers, hydrogen atom wave functions; Shapes of s, p and d orbitals. 2. Chemical Bonding: Ionic bond, characteristics of ionic compounds, lattice energy, Born-Haber cycle; covalent bond and its general characteristics, polarities of bonds in molecules and their dipole moments; Valence bond theory, concept of resonance and resonance energy; Molecular orbital theory (LCAO method); bonding in H2+, H2, He2+ to Ne2, NO, CO, HF, and CN-; Comparison of valence bond and … Continue reading UPSC Syllabus: IAS Mains Chemistry Optional Syllabus

UPSC Syllabus: IAS Mains Botany Optional Syllabus

UPSC Mains Botany Syllabus Botany Optional Paper – I 1. Microbiology and Plant Pathology: Structure and reproduction/multiplication of viruses, viroids, bacteria, fungi and mycoplasma; Applications of microbiology in agriculture, industry, medicine and in control of soil and water pollution; Prion and Prion hypothesis. Important crop diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma, fungi and nematodes; Modes of infection and dissemination; Molecular basis of infection and disease resistance/defence; Physiology of parasitism and control measures; Fungal toxins; Modelling and disease forecasting; Plant quarantine. 2. Cryptogams: Algae, fungi, lichens, bryophytes, pteridophytes – structure and reproduction from evolutionary viewpoint; Distribution of Cryptogams in India and … Continue reading UPSC Syllabus: IAS Mains Botany Optional Syllabus

UPSC Syllabus: IAS Mains Anthropology Optional Syllabus

Anthropology Syllabus for UPSC Main Examination Anthropology Optional Paper-I 1.1 Meaning, scope and development of Anthropology. 1.2 Relationships with other disciplines: Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Life Sciences, Medical Sciences, Earth Sciences and Humanities. 1.3 Main branches of Anthropology, their scope and relevance: (a) Social- cultural Anthropology. (b) Biological Anthropology. (c) Archaeological Anthropology (d) Linguistic Anthropology. 1.4 Human Evolution and emergence of Man: (a) Biological and Cultural factors in human evolution. (b) Theories of Organic Evolution (Pre- Darwinian, Darwinian and PostDarwinian). (c) Synthetic theory of evolution; Brief outline of terms and concepts of evolutionary biology (Doll’s rule, Cope’s rule, Gause’s rule, … Continue reading UPSC Syllabus: IAS Mains Anthropology Optional Syllabus

UPSC Syllabus: IAS Mains Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science Optional Syllabus

Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science Syllabus for UPSC Main Examination Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science Optional Paper-I 1.Animal Nutrition: 1.1 Partitioning of food energy within the animal. Direct and indirect calorimetry. Carbon – nitrogen balance and comparative slaughter methods. Systems for expressing energy value of foods in ruminants, pigs and poultry. Energy requirements for maintenance, growth, pregnancy, lactation, egg, wool, and meat production. 1.2 Latest advances in protein nutrition. Energy protein interrelationships. Evaluation of protein quality. Use of NPN compounds in ruminant diets. Protein requirements for maintenance, growth, pregnancy, lactation, egg, wool and meat production. 1.3 Major and trace minerals … Continue reading UPSC Syllabus: IAS Mains Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science Optional Syllabus

UPSC Syllabus: IAS Mains Agriculture Optional Syllabus

Agriculture Syllabus for UPSC Main Examination Agriculture Optional Paper-I Ecology and its relevance to man, natural resources, their sustainable management and conservation. Physical and social environment as factors of crop distribution and production. Agro ecology; cropping pattern as indicators of environments. Environmental pollution and associated hazards to crops, animals and humans. Climate change – International conventions and global initiatives. Green house effect and global warming. Advance tools for ecosystem analysis – Remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Cropping patterns in different agro-climatic zones of the country. Impact of highyielding and short-duration varieties on shifts in cropping patterns. Concepts … Continue reading UPSC Syllabus: IAS Mains Agriculture Optional Syllabus

UPSC Mains Exam- List of Optional Subjects and Syllabus

The scope of the UPSC Syllabus for Optional Subjects i.e. Papers VI and VII of Civil Services IAS Mains Exam is broadly of honours degree level i.e. a level higher than the bachelors’ degree and lower than the masters’ degree.  In the case of Engineering, Medical Science and Law, the level corresponds to the bachelors’ degree. The UPSC Syllabus of the optional subjects included in the scheme of Civil Services (Main) Examination are as follows.   Book list for UPSC Mains Optional Subject Agriculture Syllabus Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science Syllabus Anthropology Syllabus Botany Syllabus Chemistry Syllabus Civil Engineering Syllabus … Continue reading UPSC Mains Exam- List of Optional Subjects and Syllabus